I have often expounded IRL about the beneficial lessons that chess teaches us but, oddly, I don’t seem to’ve written down any of those thoughts before. I’ll skip the obvious benefits of concentration and patience and such; here are some less obvious benefits:

Strategic planning
Everyone knows that chess teaches strategy. What I think many people don’t fully appreciate is how important strategy is in our lives. From anticipating what people will do in traffic to advancing one’s career to reasoning about foreign policy, strategic thinking is ubiquitous. The “if I do this, then he’ll do that, then…” thinking that guides chess play is also useful in a thousand other contexts. Many of the other capabilities in this list are really just refinements on the basic idea of strategic planning.
Accepting reality
Chess is very unforgiving. If you lose a piece, or a positional advantage, you can’t plead to get it back. It’s just gone. Chess players quickly learn how to accept a setback and move on, instead of pining after what might have been. On the flip side of that, a common mistake among chess beginners – especially younger ones – is to hope or assume that your opponent doesn’t see something that you’re planning. One quickly learns not to rely on that assumption, because they often find their pieces out of position when the assumption is proven false. Neither optimism nor pessimism is rewarded in chess; realistic assessment of a situation is.
This is really part of accepting reality, but it’s an important part. Anyone who plays chess regularly has no choice but to accept two facts. No matter how smart you are, you will always make stupid moves quite often, and there will always be players better than you.
Risk/resource management
One of the trickiest decisions that a chess player is often forced to make is whether to use a piece for attack in one part of the board, or defense in another. Incorrectly decide for the attack, and you might get a very nasty surprise in the vicinity of your king…checkmate, game over. Incorrectly decide for the defense, and you may be hanging your already-committed attacking forces out to dry…same result, but slower. A very acute sense of exactly how seriously to take a threat and what resources to deploy in defense against it quickly develops, and that same kind of evaluation can be very important in other endeavours.
Time management
This might come as a surprise to many people who don’t play chess competitively, but the most important resource in chess often turns out to be time. Competitive games are times, anywhere from one minute per game to several per move, and allocating that time is a critically important skill. Another common mistake among inexperienced players is to respond to the loss of a piece by trying to see how the loss might have been avoided. A more experienced player will know that what’s done is done, and analysis of the error can wait until after the game. Time must be spent on considering the next move, not the last one. Chess players also learn to recognize when something deserves a second look, and when it can or should be disregarded. This sort of prioritization of one’s thinking time is, again, broadly applicable in other areas of life.
This is probably the hardest part to explain. There’s a kind of time advantage in chess that is not measured in seconds but in tempi. That’s the plural; the singular is tempo. One tempo is one move that you can make that’s not responding to your opponent’s move; a common rule of thumb is that three tempi are worth one pawn. Putting your opponent in check, or threatening (perhaps very indirectly) to gain a piece often gains this sort of time, because your opponent must expend their own time responding instead of furthering their own plans. Many games are decided on the basis of initiative alone, especially in endgames where there are very few pieces left; if you can occupy a cutoff point just before your opponent does, it might well be your pawn that becomes a queen instead of theirs.
This same knowledge of how to gain and keep initiative, universal among good chess players, can be very useful in other contexts as well. Being able to put a competitor off balance and force them to respond to your actions instead of vice versa, can make a whole host of other possible disadvantages in your situation utterly irrelevant.

ertainly a danger in overstating or overgeneralizing these lessons from chess. The world would probably not be a better place if everyone treated every situation as a game to which strategy should be applied. However, much of our world does represent a kind of game, and for the reasons detailed above I think chess provides some of the best lessons for how to handle game-like situations.